Sejarah Judi Hingga Lahirnya Teori Peluang dalam Ilmu Matematika

Judi bukanlah hal asing lagi bagi orang-orang di zaman sekarang. Sebab sekarang ini sudah menjadi salah satu kegiatan yang sering digunakan oleh orang-orang untuk mengisi waktu luang terlebih saat ini judi sudah bisa dimainkan secara online. 

Sebelum berkembang pesat seperti sekarang, judi memiliki sejarah yang cukup panjang dalam kehidupan manusia. Di artikel ini nanti akan diberikan uraian mengenai sejarah judi hingga lahirnya teori peluang dalam ilmu matematika.

Setiap hal pasti memiliki yang namanya sejarah termasuk judi. Perjudian ternyata memiliki sejarah yang cukup panjang sejak ribuan tahun yang lalu. Bahkan judi ini didapuk sebaiknya salah satu kegiatan yang melahirkan teori peluang dalam ilmu matematika. 

Jika Anda ingin mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai sejarah judi hingga akhirnya teori peluang dalam ilmu matematika, Anda bisa simak uraian berikut ini agar ada bisa memahami bagaimana sejarah perjudian itu berkembang.

Sejarah Perjudian

Di beberapa tahun terakhir mungkin judi menjadi marak karena semenjak pandemi, semakin banyak orang yang mencari hiburan di permainan judi agar bisa melepas rasa suntuknya. 

Namun, perjudian ini bukanlah isu yang baru-baru ini ada, namun judi merupakan salah satu kegiatan tertua yang dilakukan oleh umat manusia. Hal ini bisa dibuktikan dari adanya tulisan dan peralatan yang berkaitan dengan perjudian ditemukan di banyak makam dan tempat-tempat lain. 

Perjudian memang sudah dilakukan oleh banyak orang di ribuan tahun yang lalu seperti misalnya di Tiongkok, perjudian ini sudah ada sejak 4000 tahun yang lalu dan terus berkembang hingga sekarang.

Banyak sekali permainan judi yang diciptakan oleh orang-orang untuk bersenang-senang dan meraih keuntungan. Permainan judi pun terus berkembang dari waktu ke waktu, hingga saat ini kita telah banyak menemui berbagai macam jenis permainan judi yang sering dikatakan merupakan game yang sangat mengasyikkan dan juga menghasilkan. 

Meskipun judi ini menjadi sarana hiburan di banyak negara, namun ternyata permainan judi ini adalah permainan yang banyak diatur. 

Banyak diatur di sini artinya sangat dibatasi atau bahkan dilarang. Aturan ini pun sudah ada sejak dalam hukum Cina kuno dan Romawi serta dalam Talmud Yahudi juga dalam agama Islam dan Budha. Di Mesir kuno para pejudi diberikan hukuman berupa kerja paksa di tambang. 

Judi memang berkaitan erat dengan yang namanya undian. Di dalam alkitab pun tertulis banyak sekali referensi mengenai pemberian undian untuk membagi harta seperti yang ditulis di Britanicca. 

Salah satu contoh yang terkenal dalam perjudian ini adalah pengundian oleh para penjaga Romawi yang mana kemungkinan besar mereka melemparkan tulang-tulang buku jari untuk menentukan pakaian Yesus selama penyaliban.

Akan tapi di zaman kuno, melemparkan sebuah undian tidak dianggap sebagai permainan judi dalam pengertian modern, akan tetapi melemparkan undian dikaitkan dengan takdir atau nasib yang tak terhindarkan. 

Para antropolog pun menunjukkan fakta bahwa perjudian lebih dikenal di masyarakat di mana ada kepercayaan luas pada Dewa ataupun roh yang kebaikannya bisa dicari. 

Perjudian tergonarisir yakni dalam skala yang lebih besar setelah disetujui oleh pemerintah dan otoritas lain dalam bentuk pengumpulan uang dimulai pada abad ke-15 berbentuk permainan lotere.

Kemunculan rumah judi illegal di abad ke-17 silam, membuat para ahli matematika mulai menaruh minat serius kepada permainan judi yang permainannya menggunakan peralatan pengecekan seperti dadu dan juga kartu. Dari sinilah berkembang bidang teori probabilitas dalam ilmu matematika. 

Mengesampingkan judi di Cina kuno ataupun di Romawi dan Yunani kuno, ajang judi taruhan olahraga resmi terorganisir di abad ke-18. Mulai dari sana perjudian terus mengalami perubahan secara bertahap hingga kemudian internet masuk ke kehidupan manusia dan perjudian pun bisa diakses dalam skala dan bentuk yang belum pernah dimainkan sebelumnya yakni bentuk online. 

Sejauh ini mungkin para pecinta judi atau orang-orang yang memahami perjudian mungkin tidak terlalu memedulikan bahwa judi ini juga memiliki manfaat di mana ternyata perjudian inilah yang kemudian menciptakan teori probabilitas atau teori peluang pada ilmu matematika bagaimana sejarahnya? Berikut akan diuraikan.

Lahirnya Teori Peluang dalam Ilmu Matematika Melalui Perjudian

Judi emang dianggap sebagai salah satu kegiatan yang negatif namun pada kenyataannya judi juga memiliki manfaat bagi manusia terutama dalam ilmu matematika. 

Menurut sejarah, teori peluang yang merupakan salah satu cabang dari ilmu matematika berasal dari perjudian. 

Teori peluang dalam matematika lahir sebab kebutuhan penjudi untuk menganalisis taruhan yang mereka pasang.

Penjudi yang bisa dikatakan orang yang telah menganalisis lahirnya teori peluang ini adalah Anthony Gombaud atau biasa dipanggil dengan nama Chevalier De Mere yang artinya ksatria dari Mere. 

Abad ke-17 saat itu di negara Prancis sedang trend permainan lempar dadu dan saat itulah penjudi harus menggunakan insting dan pengalaman untuk menentukan taruhan. Namun hal itu tidak dilakukan oleh Gombaud, dia justru berpikir melakukan analisis sebelum berjudi. 

Salah satu permainan dadu yang paling populer saat itu adalah mana yang lebih mungkin untuk muncul:

1. Mendapatkan paling sedikitnya satu mata nomor 6 dari pelemparan sebuah dadu sebanyak 4 kali

2. Memperoleh paling sedikitnya satu mata nomor 6 ganda pada pelemparan dua buah dadu sebanyak 24 Kali.  

Namun pada saat itu Gombaud memiliki pendapat dari dua kejadian tersebut bahwa nilai peluang dari dua kejadian adalah sama. 

Dia beragumen bahwa peluang munculnya mata dadu nomor 6 dari pelemparan satu buah dadu adalah 1/6 dan jika dilempar sebanyak 4 kali, maka peluangnya pun menjadi 2/3. Pada kejadian kedua ia berpendapat bahwa peluang munculnya mata dadu nomor 6 ganda dari pelemparan Dua buah dadu adalah 1/36. Jadi jika dilempar sebanyak 24 kali, maka peluangnya adalah 2/3.

Peluang dari pemikiran Gombaud tersebut sama, akan tetapi ketika ia bertaruh dalam dua buah dadu yang dilempar sebanyak 24 kali, dia selalu kalah. 

Hal tersebutlah yang membuat dirinya penasaran mengenai hal apa yang salah dalam perhitungannya sehingga ia kemudian bertanya kepada matematikawan hebat di zaman itu yakni Blaise Pascal. 

Pascal kemudian berkorespondensi dengan matematikawan hebat yang lain yakni Pierre de Fermat untuk mendiskusikan permasalahan yang ditemui oleh Gombaud dan hasil diskusi 2 matematikawan ini yang kemudian menjadi titik awal dari teori peluang dalam ilmu matematika.

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